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Coronary Angioplasty

Coronary angioplasty is a medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open a blockage in a coronary artery narrowed by atherosclerosis. It involves inserting and expanding a tiny balloon at the site of the blockage to help clear the clogged artery. This procedure improves blood flow to the heart. Coronary angioplasty can provide relief to patients suffering from some of the symptoms associated with blocked arteries, including shortness of breath and chest pain. This healthcare technique may also be performed during a heart attack to quickly open a clogged artery and thereby minimize damage to the heart.

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or simply coronary bypass, may use a heart-lung machine or be off-pump. This cardiovascular surgery is usually required when there is a blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery due to coronary artery disease. Doctors must create a new vessel to get oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium, or muscle of the heart. To replace the blocked artery, they graft a section of vein or artery from another part of the patient’s body, usually from the leg or chest.

Interventional Procedures

The pre-procedure routine includes no intake of food and water for a few hours before the procedure. Chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests are also conducted. During the procedure A small incision is made, usually in the leg, and a thin guide wire is inserted and threaded through the artery right up to the blockage. A small thin catheter is passed over the wire until it reaches the site of the blockage. A small amount of dye is injected through the catheter so the healthcare practitioner can view the blockage on X-ray images called angiograms. A tiny balloon at the end of the catheter is inflated for several minutes at the site of the blockage stretching out the artery to widen it. This process of inflation is repeated several times.

Since the incision is so small the patient is discharged in couple of days and is prescribed to take anticoagulants to prevent further blood clots. The coronary angioplasty along with life style modification can help recover the Patient.

Balloon is inflated to compress fatty matter

Balloon angioplasty:

(Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty or PTCA)
A small balloon at the tip of a specially designed catheter is inflated to compress the fatty matter into the artery wall and stretch the artery open to increase blood flow to the heart.

 

 

Stent:

A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that acts as a scaffold to provide support inside the coronary artery. A balloon catheter, placed over a guide wire, is used to insert the stent into the narrowed coronary artery.

Once in place, the balloon is inflated and the stent expands to the size of the artery and holds it open. The balloon is deflated and removed, and the stent stays in place permanently.

Over a several-week period, the artery heals around the stent. Stents are commonly placed during interventional procedures such as angioplasty or atherectomy to help keep the coronary artery open. Drug-eluting stents (introduced in 1993) contain medicine and are designed to reduce the risk of reblockage (restenosis). Your interventionalist will decide if a drug-eluting stent is appropriate for your type of blockage.


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